Nodes as such ever have been one crucial element of nets.
Without nodes no net is existent.
Nets are able to exist in parallel as independent layers, hierarchical linked or linked in parallel as nonhierarchical nets.

The social fair and economic optimized accessibility is an important goal within the global competition and for building up a cohesion economic European space.

It is a classic subject for spatial planning and research to pick up the interdependences of complex urban factors and itineraries of transport. The potentials for intraregional development – often called as “gap of net” – depend from accessibility by transport and more and more also from information infrastructure. It former depends from junction to economic, social and cultural nodes and clusters.

Around 2000, polycentricity became more and more important as a bridging concept between growth and balance and the metropolitan regions as multifunctional gateways for division of labour between central and regional space. In the hierarchic two layer concept, the revision of the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) consistent adopted the interdependences between urban nodes, junctions of transport and its links.

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  1. Strengthening research, technological development and innovation

  2. Enhancing access to, and use and quality of ICT

  3. Enhancing the competitiveness of SMEs

  4. Supporting the shift towards a low-carbon economy in all sectors